History of Subtitling and the Art of delivering high quality perfect Subtitles

The first audio visual films reached an international audience in the year 1929. Since then there have been two dominant audio visual translation methodologies, dubbing and subtitling. While dubbing was mainly used in German, Italian, Spanish and German speaking countries in and outside Europe, Subtitling became a particularly preferred form of audio visual translation over dubbing in countries with large non-European speaking communities and small European countries that had high literacy rate.

The Art of delivering high quality perfect Subtitles

When comparing subtitling with other forms of audio visual translation such as dubbing, there are four main issues which require expertise and planning for delivering high quality perfect subtitles:

  1. The subtitles that appear on the bottom of the screen partially interfere with the visual images, which is why most transcripts appear as small pieces of written translations that generally don’t extend over 2 lines of about 35 characters each.
  2. The format, structure and styling of subtitles should be such that it enhances the visibility and legibility of each and every subtitle.
  3. Since subtitling is a written form of audio visual translation, it has an inherent limitation of communicating the actual tone of voice. The translator should keep this point in mind while creating subtitles and should provide subtitles that clearly communicate the intent of the audio visual content.
  4. The speed of display, dialogue and translated subtitles requires proper synchronization. This synchronization requires calculation and planning because of various technical reasons which are specific to subtitling. Firstly, the speed of dialogue or other audio visual extracts which require translation are generally faster than the rate at which full subtitles can be rendered. Therefore proper time and size management of the subtitles with relation to the audio visual scenes is required. Secondly, the average reading speed of the viewer also varies greatly. Again this impacts the rate at which the subtitles change and size of the subtitles would also vary depending on the reading speed of viewers. Thirdly, subtitling necessitates short intervals in between every subsequent subtitle.

Subtitling is an inexpensive mode of audio visual translation. As a leading subtitling company in UK, we take into consideration all the above mentioned pros and cons of subtitling, to ensure high quality perfect subtitles for all audio visual translation requirements.

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What is Subtitling?

Subtitling can be understood as the translation of audio visual formats such as cinema, television, videos and computer games, in the form of short line by line written texts, which keeps appearing at the bottom of the audio visual screen, and changes as the screen dialogue or any other audio that requires translation changes. Below are different definitions of subtitling by some of the most notable scholars of subtitling and translation.

Definitions of subtitling by some of the most notable scholars of subtitling and translation

Diaz Cintas J and Remael A: As defined by Diaz Cintas J and Remael A in their book Audiovisual Translation: Subtitling, “Subtitling may be defined as a translation practice that consists of presenting a written text, generally on the lower part of the screen, that discursive elements that appear in the image (letters, inserts, graffiti, inscriptions, placards, and the like), and the information that is contained on the soundtrack (songs, voices off).” D. Cintas also names two main types of subtitling services which are intralinguistic subtitles and interlinguistic subtitles, in addition to a number of other types.

Shuttleworth and Cowie: Shuttleworth and Cowie defined subtitling as “the process of providing synchronized captions for film and television dialogue”. They also said that subtitling is a term used to refer to one of the two main methods of language transfer used in translating types of mass audio visual communication such as film and television.

OӃonnell: OӃonnell, a scholar in the field of subtitling, defines subtitling as “supplementing the original voice sound track by adding written text on the screen”. While pointing out the benefits of subtitling over dubbing, O’Connell points out that subtitling is an inexpensive, quick, foreign culture friendly and generally fairly politically correct mode of screen translation.

Jan Ivarsson: Jan Ivarsson another notable authority in the field of subtitling classified subtitling into various branches which are subtitling for cinema and television, multilingual subtitling, teletext subtitling, reduced subtitling, subtitling live or in real time, the translation of opera, theatrical works, conferences, etc. However the two primary branches of subtitling as mentioned by various scholars are intralinguistic subtitles and interlinguistic subtitles.

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Software and Website Translation – Similarities and Differences

Translation is a general concept which applies to all the three fields of translation, websites, web applications and software applications. However from the point of view of translation studies there are few similarities and differences between these fields.

For businesses that are looking to break into an international market, one of the best marketing and communication solution is Website localisation. Software translation is required by companies that want to launch their software in a global marketplace.

Every business should ensure that their audience can browse their website and other resources in a language which they understand and easily connects with. A business that fails to communicate with their target audience in their own language will fall short when it comes to attracting new consumers.

Website translation vs. Software translation

Common aspects in website and software translation include aspects such as user interfaces, front end text integration in programming code, file formats such as HTML and other common mark up languages, which are extensively used on the Web and also used in help files of software.

However factors that set them apart are the global nature of websites, the public character of Internet and the broad scope of websites. When compared with software applications, websites touch almost every aspect of our lives, whereas software are developed for specific purpose or application. Thus software translation and localization require much stronger technical background than website translation or localization. On the other hand because of the technicalities involved, translating web applications is also much similar to translating software applications.

Multilingual websites are particularly important for many organizations and companies such as international companies, export-oriented companies, international organizations and for web authors targeting international readers.

Static Website vs. Dynamic Websites

All websites are digital documents and can be either static or dynamic. Static websites are developed primarily using markup languages like HTML and CSS. Whereas dynamic websites are designed using HTML and CSS, but the content is displayed dynamically using programming languages like PHP, ASP, Ruby on Rails, Python or any other web programming language. In addition to textual content there is multimedia content also available on the web.

While translating websites we have to ensure that the digital format, which includes the mark up and programming codes, remain preserved and only the content that appears in the front end is translated. In addition translated websites should ensure that users are either automatically re-directed or can easily access the translated versions of the websites.

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Applying for a UK Visa? List of Supportive Documents that are usually required and often translated

While applying for a UK visa you will usually have to attach many supportive documents related to your personal, finances or education. Please remember that there are different types of UK Visas and the purpose of your visit will determine the type of Visa you will require and accordingly the documents you will have to submit might also vary.

According to the Government of United kingdom, all such supportive documents should be originally written in either English or Welsh languages. If they are written in any other language, then they must be accompanied by a full English or Welsh translation, which can be independently verified by the Home Office. Further all such translations should be certified translations.

List of supportive documents that are often submitted along with a UK Visa application

There are many supportive documents that have to be provided along with your UK Visa application. Some documents are compulsory while others are not. List of important documents that are often attached to most successful visa applications include documents such as:

  1. Valid travel document (national passport or other document that allows the holder to travel internationally)
  2. Previous travel documents/passports, which show previous travel.
  3. Financial documents showing that you have sufficient funds available. These must clearly show that you have access to the funds, such as (a) Bank statements, (b) Building society book, (c) Proof of earnings such as a letter from employer confirming employment details (start date of employment, salary, role, company contact details), and, (d) where a third party (who is either in the UK or who will be legally in the UK at the time of your visit) is providing financial support to you e.g. a business, a friend or a relative, documents to show they have sufficient resources to support you in addition to themselves and any dependent family should be provided.
  4. Confirmation of legal residence, if you are not a national of the country in which you are applying or your right to reside there is not included in your passport.
  5. Details of employment or studies where you have stated in your application that you are either employed or in full-time studies. This could include (a) a letter from your employer on company headed paper, detailing your role, salary and length of employment, and, (b) a letter from your education provider, on headed paper, confirming your enrollment and leave of absence. Get your education documents translated by the best translation company in UK.
  6. If self employed: business registration documents confirming the business owner’s name and the date the business started trading.
  7. Business activities – where you are coming to the UK in order to undertake activities relating to your occupation/employment outside the UK you should submit documents showing what you will be doing in the UK, including any letters from inviting organisations. For example, (a) Any business activities, e.g. letter from your employer outlining the reason for your visit, who you will be meeting and details of any payment/expenses, and, (b) For performances and entertainment visitors, whether you work in this area as a professional or amateur , and what and where you will be performing.
  8. If you are under 18 years it is strongly recommended that you submit the following information as otherwise it may delay consideration of your application, a Birth Certificate or legal document (such as adoption papers) showing the relationship between you and your parent or guardian. If the concerned document is in Thai, then please ensure that you are attaching a proper certified legal translation as well.
  9. If travelling unaccompanied or with someone other than your parent(s) you should provide, (a) A signed letter from your parent(s) confirming details of anyone accompanying you, and details of care and accommodation arranged in the UK, and, (b) A copy of your parent(s) or legal guardian’s biographical page of their passport, which includes their signature and passport number if your parent(s) do not have a passport then you must provide another official document which bears their signature.

Documents you should not send unless specifically requested

  1. if you are applying as a family/group you do not need to provide multiple copies of the same documents
  2. bank statements or letters issued more than 1 year before the date of application
  3. driving licence
  4. notarial certificates
  5. business cards
  6. hotel bookings
  7. flight bookings
  8. photocopies of bank cards
  9. credit card statements
  10. certificates relating to leisure activities
  11. evidence of car ownership
  12. travel insurance
  13. sponsor’s utility bills
  14. sponsor’s council tax bills
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Why you really ought to add human powered captions to your YouTube Channel.

Properly implemented closed captions and subtitles are well-timed around the action, easy on the eye and delivered at a comfortable reading speed for the audience. They don’t detract from the viewer’s experience but help to make the on-screen messages more accessible to a wider audience.

Subtitling is quicker and more cost effective than dubbing and voiceover, especially when translating into multiple languages, and we can offer fast turnaround of translated text at competitive rates.

We are on a mission to make online broadcasts more accessible and truly international. To this end we are keen to encourage channel owners and content providers to translate their work into as many languages as possible. The first and most important step in achieving this is to caption your online work in your own language. Speech recognition tools are advanced but have not yet achieved the levels of accuracy required to produce a legible transcript on their own. Online translation tools will at least have a chance of some success when reading their input from a human written transcript.

Why you really ought to add human powered captions to your YouTube Channel.

When implemented correctly YouTube captions are read and indexed by both YouTube and Google just like text based web pages. Captions are treated as a full, accurate textual representation of your video.It is important to note that YouTube’s automatic captions are NOT indexed by Google or YouTube due to their inaccuracy.High quality professional captions are the quickest and best way to take instant advantage of SEO benefits and rapidly  gain more viewers, subscribers and generate interest in your channel.
For too long hearing loss has been ignored, overlooked and disregarded despite the millions who live with its consequences.There are more than 11 million people in the UK with some form of hearing loss, 1 in 6 of the population.  By 2031 this figure is expected to rise to 14.1 million people or nearly 20% of the population of the UK.According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 28 million of the 190 million Brazilians have hearing problems, a number corresponding to 14% of the Brazilian population.In the United States About 20% of Americans, 48 million people, report some degree of hearing loss .By the age of 65, one out of three people has a hearing loss.

60% of the people with hearing loss are either in the work force or in educational settings.

Studies indicate that these numbers will only increase.

By not captioning your videos correctly you are effectively excluding many people from your channel and you are losing out on thousands of viewers, potential customers and a huge business opportunity.

Captioning Formats for Online Video Content

Format name File extension Additional information
Scenarist Closed Caption .scc Exact representation of CEA-608 data. The preferred format whenever captions are based on CEA-608 features.

The formats below do not convey CEA-608.

Format name File extension Additional information
SubRip .srt Only basic versions supported – no style information (markup) is recognised.
SubViewer .sbv or .sub Only basic versions supported – no style information (markup) is recognised.
MPsub (MPlayer subtitle) .mpsub “FORMAT=” parameter is supported.
LRC .lrc No styling, but enhanced format supported.
Videotron Lambda .cap Primarily used for Japanese subtitles.
Format Name File extension Additional information
SAMI (Synchronised Accessible Media Interchange) .smi or .sami Only basic features supported – timecodes and text.
RealText Rt Only basic features supported – timecodes, text and simple markup.
WebVTT .vtt Initial implementation.
DFXP (Distribution Format Exchange Profile) .ttml or .dfxp Interpreted as TTML.
TTML (Timed-Text Markup Language) .ttml Partial implementation. SMPTE-TT extensions supported for CEA-608features. iTunes Timed Text (iTT) file format is supported; iTT is a subset of TTML, Version 1.0.

Broadcast formats

Format Name File extension Additional information
EBU-STL (binary) .stl European Broadcasting Union standard.
Caption Center (binary) .tds Supports CEA-608 features.
Captions Inc. (binary) CIN Supports CEA-608 features.
Cheetah (ASCII text) .asc Supports CEA-608 features.
Cheetah (binary) .cap Supports CEA-608 features.
NCI (binary) .cap Supports CEA-608 features.


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Localisation for business

Localisation is a process that requires an appreciation of the value of linguistic and translation skills and the crucial role that use of language  plays in defining style, culture, local beliefs, values, heritage and the sense of humour of target audiences.

Beyond the literal translation of words from one language to another, applying an appropriate style that conveys a message into another language with maximum impact and without detracting from the original tone, context or meaning could be a key detail crucial to the success or failure of an international venture.

Rather than transmitting an unsophisticated homogenised message, a carefully implemented localisation considers the style expectations of each target market and uses language that is carefully crafted to evoke an equally positive emotional response among foreign language speakers as already established in the original work.

Our native speaking language consultants bring an in depth knowledge of the target culture or country and contribute positively to your effort build a bridge to your new customers and our international translation teams have the talent and knowledge required to be able to reach out and engage the attention of new  audiences.

A consulting process involving careful and considered assessment of  your objectives and an insightful analysis of target market conditions and culture enables us to add refinement to your international strategies contributing the edge you need to establish a position in new and often challenging emerging markets.

By teaming up your creative team with our linguistic expertise, you can maximise on the opportunity offered by engaging fully with a growing segment of increasingly wealthy, well educated, well informed and sophisticated international consumers in their preferred language.

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Use the services of expert translators to get the desired language solution

In a world of 7.4 billion people with nearly 6500 spoken languages, linguistic and cultural diversity is the most predominant factor that creates a wide gap between businesses and clients. Bridging this gap to build an enviable global brand is one of the major challenges for any business. It is quite natural to assume that any business is bound to attract maximum number of clients when it communicates effectively and conveys its messages and vision to the customers in their native languages. Thanks to professional linguists and expert translators who make it easy for any business to get access to clients worldwide, communicating with them in the most user-friendly languages.

Be it website localization, technical documents translation, or getting Certified Translation London services, a leading translation agency will provide you the much needed language solution at a cost competitive price in the most convenient way. Certified Translation Services is a well recognized and reliable online translation agency that has more than 10,000 translators to provide a wide array of translation services UK in over 100 languages. The linguists and translators of the agency provide high quality; flawless translation services and documents are fully certified for all official uses in the UK or abroad.

Whether you run an e-commerce store looking for legal documents translation or translation of product descriptions from English to Chinese or Arabic, you can rely on the high level expertise and extensive experience of the committed translators of Certified Translation Services. You simply need to discuss your translation requirements with any of our experts and get the best price quote. Once you agree with this quote you should send the documents online as email attachments and get the same day delivery or standard delivery of the translated documents in 3 to 4 days.

The experts of the agency are committed to provide you finest quality translation services UK in the most reliable and efficient way. So what are you waiting for? Feel free to call us on +44 (0)20 3582 7240 or drop an email at info@certifiedtranslationuk.com. Get in touch with us online by visiting our site at www.certifiedtranslationservices.co.uk.

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3 Benefits of quality translation service from a certified agency

Translation of business documents, patents, users’ guide and other marketing materials in local and international languages other than English is very important to enable business deliver the right message and establish a sound rapport with target customers in other countries. Business companies seeking to promote their brand globally aim to reach to the maximum number of target customers. Getting the website and other marketing materials translated by certified professional translators makes it easy to promote business on a truly global scale.

Here is a checklist of the benefits that can be gained from hiring expert translators:-

Facilitates in promoting your business brand on a global scale

Regardless of the nature and location of businesses, experts of well reputed Translation Agencies will help clients get their documents translated in the desired language and way that takes care of the culture and lifestyle of target customers. Certified Translation Services is a leading translation agency consisting of over 10000 translators fulfilling language and translation requirements of individuals and business groups throughout UK.

Helps in legalizing official documents after accurate translation

Whether you need to get documents translated from English to French or other languages you can count on the expertise of linguists of Certified Translators Services who cater to the language and translation needs of clients.

Expert linguists and translators of the leading agency will provide you quality translation and legalization of documents at a reasonable cost in a quick turnaround time.

Facilitate in making partnership with others easy

If you want to make your business brand truly global then you must take care to expand your network and make new associates or partners. You can plan to invite entrepreneurs to open up franchises of your business. This can only be done if your partner understands the nature and importance of your business and get convinced about the utility of your offered products and services.

With quality website localization and transcription services the proficient translators will help you expand your network and customers’ base.

So what are you waiting for? Set for a new journey of success and brand recognition with availing quality translation services from UK based Certified Translation Services.  For more info and services feel free to visit us online at www.certifiedtranslationservices.co.uk.

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Get Your Personal or Business Documents Translated at the Most Affordable Cost

Language plays an essential role in fostering strong relationships between individuals, communities or nations. Being a tool for communicating thoughts and emotions, a language binds the citizens of a country with a specific identity thereby promoting brotherhood and cultural unity. Whether it is the promotion of any idea or a business, you have to take care to use user-friendly language that is most suitable for the target audience. Getting the documents translated in the desired languages by certified translators of a leading Translation Services UK agency can help one avail expert language solution that will streamline promotion and boost profits.

Certified Translation Services is the online portal of Universal Language Solutions that provides a wide array of translation and copywriting services in more than 100 languages as per the requirements of its clients. Based in London the leading translation agency caters to the language requirements of individuals and industries throughout UK. You can easily get flawless and high quality Translation Services UK at a cost effective price in a prompt and professional way that will provide you the maximum value for money. With over 10,000 professional linguists and translators the company is committed to fulfill any translation project regardless of its complexity within the scheduled time.

Be it getting Certified Translation London for your personal documents like birth certificates, marriage certificate, divorce or death certificates or getting business brochures, users’ manual or website translated, the expert and committed translators and linguist of Certified Translation Services will provide you well qualified services. When you deal with the leading agency you can be rest assured that you will get high quality language solution that will provide you optimum satisfaction and guaranteed peace of mind. Besides business documents and technical documents translation the agency also provides desktop publishing, multilingual copywriting, website localization, and voice-over and interpretation services on a pocket-friendly price in a professional way. Interested to know more about us? Get in touch with us by calling on +44 (0)20 3582 7240 or visit us online at www.certifiedtranslationservices.co.uk.

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Rely Only on a Top Notch Translation Agency for Legal Translation

Translation of legal documents like contracts, court documents, patents, certificates, letter of incorporation and others is quite different from translation of business documents and marketing materials. As legal documents involve the use of technical terms or legal jargon’s that need to be translated in other language hence it is more difficult and expensive than the later. It requires high level of expertise on the subject besides proficiency in multiple languages. Hence it is always in one’s best interests to hire a well reputed translation agency that employs a team of language experts or legal specialists to provide highly accurate and certified translated document.

Certified Translation Services is a popular and well reputed translation agency based in London that provides a wide array of translation services from and into more than 100 languages. Besides Legal Translation Services the committed linguists and translators of the agency also provides multilingual copy-writing, subtitling, voice over service, transcription, website localization and translation of technical, marketing, medical and other business documents.

Hiring expert translators of Certified Translation Services will provide you following benefits that cannot be gained otherwise:-

  1. Cost-effective language solution
  2. Flexibility to select among 100 global languages
  3. Flawless translation services received online
  4. Quick turn-around time
  5. Maximum value for money
  6. Maintaining the right perspective as well as conforming to cultural values

When it comes to availing legal translation services then getting sub-standard quality translation from a local agency can dent your brand reputation or may lead to financial losses or lawsuits. Hence it is very important to select a translation company that has an excellent track record of success and is well known to deliver impeccable quality results in a professional way. Besides these factors one must also ensure that the translation agency follows a Privacy Clause that guarantees maintenance of confidentiality of the clients as well as the original document. So make it a point to get in touch with the expert translators of Certified Translation Services at www.certifiedtranslationservices.co.uk.

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